How to Specify - Design Criteria

Design Criteria DC (Inlcudes Preliminary Project Description [PPD])

The Design Criteria Sections of BSD SpecLink-E are used to define the expected performance of a whole building and its parts early in the project, before the facility has been designed, rather than responding to a specific design. There is an option to create a Preliminary Project Description (PPD) for a Schematic Phase design narrative.

The DC Sections fall between Division 0 and 1 in the MasterFormat 2004/2010+ hierarchy so that they can more easily be used with any combination of the regular specs and Division 0 Sections.

The content of each DC section mimics the CSI Three-Part Format that is used in the rest of the Sections:

  • The parts are PART 1 GENERAL (with brief scoping statements), PART 2 PRODUCTS (with the Use/Do Not Use lists), and PART 3 DESIGN CRITERIA (with the performance statements).
  • PART 1 can be used without the other parts and PARTs 1 & 2 can be used without PART 3.
  • These options might be appropriate for a Preliminary Project Description (PPD); this is the format defined by CSI for a Schematic Phase design narrative.
  • PART 3 would not be used without PART 1 but can be used without PART 2.

The procurement and contracting Design-Build documents are in Divisions 0 and 1. To specify, one should refer to Sections:

  • 00 2116 (00205) - Instructions to Proposers
  • 00 4200 (00420) - Proposal Form
  • 00 7100 (00570) - Contracting Definitions
  • 01 3050 (01305) - Design Procedures and Substantiation Requirements
  • 01 4100 (01410) - Regulatory Requirements (Complements DC 0 - Facility Design Criteria)

Design Build Projects will typically require a separately prepared facility program defining dimensional requirements, space utilization criteria, project mission and goals, aesthetic needs, environment, and similar. Depending on the strategy, the facility program can be prepared in advance or assigned to the Design-Builder as a separate task to be performed once under contract. This information may be interpreted to complete the Design Criteria Sections.

Additional detailed Master Notes are contained in the individual Sections.


Design Criteria DC

DC 0 - Facility

DC 0 - Facility Design Criteria

This Section describes primary, fundamental statements of design criteria for Design- Build projects; begin with this Section. Start by completing the optional checklist and the Section will be prepopulated for editing.

This Section is the most fundamental statement of design criteria and covers criteria that apply to the facility as a whole or to many elements of the project. It should be used on every project where design criteria are being stated, whether a conventional design-bid-build project or a design-build project. Both performance and prescriptive types of criteria are included.

Topics covered include:

General description of the scope of the project.

Occupancy type (what kind of building it is):

  • List of buildings, grouped into similar types. Each group is linked to relevant text elsewhere in the document, so that any obviously necessary text is automatically included and undesirable text is excluded.
  • For best results, select the one paragraph from the list that best describes the type of project and select the specific type from its choices. If the specific type needed is not listed, use the most similar group and enter another description in the fill-in-the-blank at the end of the choices.
  • If more than one group seems applicable, first look at the last group in the list - multi-use complex. If that is not a close enough match, select two or more of the other groups and edit the text appropriately to indicate that several functions are present in the same project.

Additional description of the project as a whole may be added here, for example:

  • Description of the project's context in the community; location in relation to main streets or the business district.
  • Owner's preferred location of the building on the site, or in a multi-building project, relative locations of different buildings.

Definition of "The Code" for purposes of this project.

  • This is a fundamental requirement. The basic statement is that the code consists of all applicable regulations, but it can be amplified or made more informative by inclusion of more detail.
  • These design criteria assume that most, if not all, of the normal provisions of at least one set of model codes as published are included in the enacted local codes - if not, you may need to include more criteria in the definition below, as "Non-Regulatory Criteria Documents, "with the caveat "unless otherwise required by law."
  • Codes that are in effect by virtue of regulations or laws may be itemized in Section 014110 (01410) Regulatory Requirements.

Other definitions:  Building systems and Components

Non-regulatory criteria documents, reference standards.

  • List reference standards that are included within the text of this Section. Use the full title as listed in the standard itself. Include as author the full name of the sponsoring organization, unless the acronym is an adequate identifier (ASTM, ANSI, NEMA, etc.). Include the date of publication if consistent with global decision on publication dates.

Existing conditions; preservation and/or demolition required.

  • Select whether the existing structure is to be reused, removed, or something in between.
  • In a design-build situation involving an existing structure to be re-used, the Owner may wish to allow the Design-Builder to determine which elements to preserve or re-use and which to demolish. If that is not true for this project, describe any limitations upon the Design-Builder with respect to demolition, preservation, or re-use.
  • If the Design-Builder must preserve, restore, or reuse specific elements of the existing structure, those elements must be identified.

Otherwise, the Design-Builder may remove or reuse any element at his discretion.

Known and potential hazards (asbestos, PCB's, lead paint).

Note: Hazardous waste remediation must be specified separately - no design criteria are provided for it.

Global criteria that apply to more than one group of elements.  

Some examples of the latter include:

  • Energy efficiency.

If an energy conservation code is in effect, it's unnecessary to specify the minimum efficiency, unless the project must exceed the efficiency required by code. The project’s LEED or sustainable design criteria can also be used to exceed the code or to specify a minimum in the absence of an energy code.

  • Environmentally responsible design.

Note:  Many requirements for environmentally responsible design are also specified in other Sections, as criteria relating to other factors. Look for them in the categories Durability and Operation and Maintenance, particularly. In the list, some goals include the option to say "As specified," indicating that there are specific requirements on the subject in other Sections.

Some of the goals listed below do not have well-established criteria. The U.S. Green Buildings Council Green Building Rating Systems suggest some ways to achieve some of them. If criteria are known add them. Otherwise, it is better to indicate a desire to achieve a goal rather than to require achievement of an undefined goal.

Expected life span.

This expected life span statement is only an indication of expectations, not a verifiable quantity. It is intended to be used to clarify both what the Owner expects and what the design is intended to provide. Also, many individual elements of the building are never expected to last the same length of time, either because the technology doesn't exist to make products that will last that long or because those elements may be removed or remodeled before then. Therefore, if this paragraph is included, other related paragraphs will also be included, to define the necessarily lesser life spans of those elements.

Durability.

It is highly unlikely that the actual length of time the building will last can actually be proven in advance. On the other hand, service life can be reasonably predicted if materials and applications have been in use for some time.

Physical security.

Some good resources on CPTED are found on the website of the Justice Information Center of the National Criminal Justice Reference Service: www.ncjrs.gov.
NIJ Research In Brief Reports
"Physical Environment and Crime"
"Environmental Design and Premises Liability"
"Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design in Parking Facilities"

Lightning protection.

Lightning protection is NOT required by most building codes.

There are complicated methods of assessing the risk of loss due to lightning, and there are simple methods. A complicated method is included in NFPA 780, Appendix H.

The simple method is mostly intuitive because there are no degrees of lightning protection, only protected or not protected. Consider the height of the building first, relative to adjacent structures and topography. After that consider the size (ground area). The probability of lightning strikes increases proportionately to both the height and size of the structure, with exposed structures more vulnerable than sheltered ones. The probability of damage usually depends on how flammable the materials are, with flammable roofs being the most vulnerable. If flammable liquids or gases, or explosive materials, are stored within the danger is increased. Beyond that, personal and economic factors should be considered, and may be more important than all others. Consider indirect losses, such as the consequences if the use of the structure is lost.

Although it is possible to protect virtually any structure by the addition of lightning terminals, conductors, and grounds, the overall design of the building (especially its structural system and roof) can significantly affect the need for these additional components.

If the project involves extensive outdoor areas, protection of people, livestock, and trees may be necessary. NFPA 780 Appendixes include suggestions for protection for picnic grounds, playgrounds, ball parks, and other open places; livestock in fields; trees, both near buildings and of historic or sentimental value; boats and other watercraft.

Other special situations that should be considered carefully (not covered by NFPA 780) are: parked aircraft, explosive materials, and installations that need early streamer emission or charge dissipation systems.

Ease of operation and maintenance.

Although ease of operation is very subjective, it would be useful to inform the Design-Builder of the Owner's expectations in regard to need for specially trained personnel. If the project must be operated by personnel with less than the expected level of experience or education, the Design-Builder must be so informed.

If the facility is a replacement of an existing facility that is now in operation, it may be possible to list in the project program the education level of the personnel who will be operating the new facility. Training of personnel on new systems can be made a part of the Design-Builder's work.

Occupancy-specific design criteria:

Food preparation, storage and serving facilities:

The NFSMI Design Handbook is primarily for school food service but includes many considerations applicable to other types of food service. The handbook should be used by Owners starting in the programming (planning) stage, as well as by the designers. It covers much more than kitchen layout or equipment.

HACCP is Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points, a method for prevention of food safety problems. HACCP is recognized internationally as the preferred method of assuring food safety (prevention is the best medicine). ISO 9000 is the international quality management standard for all types of facilities and processes. NSF International is the principal US provider of registration of food service operations under ISO 9000.

Do not include this requirement unless it is clearly applicable. The designer will undoubtedly require the advice of an experienced food service consultant, if not the registration agency itself.

Athletic spaces, courts, fields, swimming pools, and venues.

The project program must identify which sports are to be accommodated, the number of courts/fields, etc., whether they are to be indoors or outdoors, and the size of the facility, if not established by the rules for the sport defined below.

Choose the governing authority for the sport - that means that the facilities have to be built to conform to that authority's rules, if any. For athletics below the college level, including recreational sports, the NFHS guide listed first below is probably adequate. For collegiate, professional, national and international sports, the rules of the specific governing body apply.

If no rules apply, such as for facilities that are mostly recreational rather than competitive, it will be necessary to define the size and equipment required in some other way (such as in the program).

In addition to the demolition provisions of this Section, each other design criteria Section provides a location to identify specific removal and preservation requirements for that element of the work. Section 02 4100, Demolition, can also be used to specify detailed demolition procedures.

If extensive hazardous waste remediation, such as that required for environmental cleanup, is required, specify it in a Section of its own.

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DC 00 - Spaces

This Section describes definitions of space types; cross-reference to project program.  Start by completing the optional checklist and the Section will be prepopulated for editing.

This section includes lists of types of spaces that might be included in any facility project.  Both interior and exterior building spaces (rooms and outdoor spaces) are included.  The space designations are used elsewhere in the design criteria to identify particular spaces that the criteria apply to.

This list of spaces is also suggested as the starting point for the project facility program, which must be prepared separately. The preparation of a facility program is usually collaboration between the owner and a design professional, often a specialist called a facility programmer or design criteria professional. Related specialists include equipment planners for specific facility types.

A facility program can also be prepared by a design-builder based on the owner's input as part of the preparation of a proposal or after execution of the contract. It will be difficult to obtain accurately priced proposals until a facility program has been prepared and approved by the owner, unless those proposals can be based on another facility as a model.

Section 007100 (00570) - Contracting Definitions, should be used to incorporate the project program into the contract documents.

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DC  999 - Design Criteria Template Section

This Section describes a template outline for development of user-added design criteria Sections. Start by completing the optional checklist and the Section will be prepopulated for editing.

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DC A - Substructure

DC A - Substructure Criteria

This Section describes elements below grade or in contact with ground; to back side of interior finishes. Start by completing the optional checklist and the Section will be prepopulated for editing.

This Section includes criteria for all building elements that are below grade or in direct contact with the ground, up to the back side of interior finishes (which are covered in Interior Finish Criteria). Requirements include provisions for any excavation that is necessary to put substructure in place, but do not include other types of excavation, such as site grading and excavation for site utilities.

Substructure comprises the following major elements:

  • Foundations:  All types of building foundations, including spread footings, foundation walls, elevator pits, slabs on grade, and components such as shoring and underpinning, piles, cofferdams, and dewatering systems, if included as part of permanent construction. This also covers excavation necessary to put foundations in place but not other types of excavation or grading.
  • Standard Foundations:  Spread footings beneath columns and linear spread footings below loadbearing walls. This category also includes pile caps and lateral foundation ties.
  • Other Foundations:  All types of special foundation systems, including rafts, caissons, driven and bored piles, pole foundations, permanent shoring and underpinning, and permanent dewatering systems and cofferdams.
  • Basements:  All elements necessary to enclose habitable space below or partially below grade, including excavation, backfill, and compaction of earth adjacent to basements.  Basements comprise all elements of below-grade wall and floor construction, including thermal insulation, waterproofing and dampproofing, and subdrainage.
  • Floors on Grade:  All types of floors on grade but mainly concrete slabs. This category includes all elements that comprise the completed slab foundation, including trenches, sumps, and pits, equipment bases, and provisions for underslab and perimeter drainage, thermal insulation below or at the slab edge, and moisture barriers and waterproofing installed integrally with the floor system. Also included would be floors made up of pavers or wooden floors on sleepers. Floors on grade may be above nominal ground level or may form the floor of basements below grade. (Floors that are elevated above grade are part of Superstructure.)

Caution:  This Section should not be used without Section DC0, Facility Design Criteria.

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DC B1 - Superstructure Criteria

This Section describes structural elements above grade. Start by completing the optional checklist and the Section will be prepopulated for editing.

This Section includes requirements that apply to all elements of floor and roof construction above grade and within basements, and elements required for support, including structural frame and load-bearing walls.

If the shell of a building is made up of a single element, such as an air-supported structure, or of integrated components that must be manufactured by the same manufacturer, like a pre-engineered metal building, the full criteria for it would be stated in Superstructure, Exterior Enclosure, and Roofing.

Superstructure comprises:

Elevated Floors:  All types of elevated floors, including balcony, mezzanine, and ramp floors, floors elevated for access, stair construction if part of the superstructure, and roof decks intended for occupant live load. Floors include:

  • The structure supporting the floor, such as structural frame or walls.
  • Framing for openings.
  • Floor decks and slabs.
  • Access flooring.
  • Integral finishes.
  • Sheathing, and underlayment, including all methods of leveling or smoothing floors not considered finished surfaces.
  • Fireproofing and firestopping.
  • Other floor elements.

Roofs:  All types of roofs, including canopies. Roofs include:

  • The structure supporting the roof, such as structural frame or walls.
  • Framing for openings.
  • Roof decks and slabs.
  • Sheathing.
  • Vapor retarders, air barriers, and insulation, excluding that on top of deck.
  • Fireproofing and firestopping.
  • Other roof elements.

Caution: This Section should not be used without Section DC0, Facility Design Criteria.

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DC B - Shell

DC B2 - Exterior Enclosure Criteria

This Section describes non-structural vertical enclosure, windows, other openings, etc. Start by completing the optional checklist and the Section will be prepopulated for editing.

This Section includes requirements that apply to all non-structural vertical exterior elements, including openings and elements closing or covering openings. The exterior enclosure is all the vertical (or nominally vertical) components of the separation between exterior and interior conditioned space, including exterior skin, components supporting weather barriers, and jointing and interfacing components. The interior finish of the enclosure is not included unless it is an integral part of the enclosure.

Exterior Walls:  Includes exterior walls, balcony walls and railings, parapets, joint sealers, air and vapor barriers, insulation, exterior screens (visual), exterior ceilings and soffits and other exterior elements associated with the exterior enclosure and weather barriers. The interior finish of the exterior wall is not included unless it is an integral part of the wall (see Section DCC3 for interior finishes). 

Components of exterior walls include lintels, sills, opaque panels in openings, concealed flashings.

Exterior Windows And Other Openings:  Windows and ventilation openings in the exterior wall and protection devices for those openings.

  • Exterior Windows:  Operable and fixed windows used as single units or in multiples. Windows also include storefronts, but do not include entrance doors or curtain walls.
  • Ventilation Openings:  Louvers, vents, grilles, and screens that are not an integral part of the mechanical system.
  • Protection Devices for Openings: Sun control, privacy, security, insulation and storm protection devices.

Exterior Wall Appurtenances:  All elements attached to exterior walls, except equipment and service fixtures, and except flagpoles and signs attached to walls.

Exterior doors must also comply with these criteria but further criteria for doors are included in Section DCB3.

See Section DCC31, Information Fixtures Criteria, for all signage.

See Section DCG1, Site Improvements Criteria, for all flagpoles.

Caution: This Section should not be used without Section DC0, Facility Design Criteria.

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DC B3 - Exterior Doors Criteria

This Section describes exterior doors and components to complete door openings; door hardware criteria. Start by completing the optional checklist and the Section will be prepopulated for editing.

This Section covers exterior pedestrian doors, vehicular and large doors, special use doors, and exterior gates. The principal elements are door frames, glazing, and hardware, except frames that are an integral part of the exterior wall.

Pedestrian doors include entrance and utility, people-sized doors for personnel passage.

Vehicular and large doors include coiling, sectional, lift and other industrial doors for vehicle and equipment passage.

Special use doors include detention, cold storage, and other special function doors; these are not explicitly specified but could be added.
Exterior gates include swinging, decorative, and security barriers controlling entrance or exit through a wall.

Caution:  This Section should not be used without Section DC0, Facility Design Criteria, or DCB1, Exterior Enclosure Criteria.

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DC B4 - Roofing Criteria

This Section describes roof coverings, openings, and fixtures; insulation, gutters, skylights, hatches, etc. Start by completing the optional checklist and the Section will be prepopulated for editing.

This Section includes requirements that apply to all elements from the top of deck on up, including "roofing" on exterior floor decks. The principal elements included are roof coverings, roof openings, and roof fixtures.

Roof Coverings: Weather barriers, vapor retarders, insulation, water collectors and conductors, wearing surfaces, trim and accessories, and other roof covering elements. Roof coverings include:

  • Weather barriers: Shingles, tiles, panels, membranes; including water- and weatherproofing of plaza decks and balcony floors.
  • Vapor retarders and insulation.
  • Water collectors and conductors, including gutters, downspouts, scuppers, overflows.
  • Wearing surfaces, if separate from weather barrier, including ballast, pavers, and exterior 'floor' finishes (e.g. indoor/outdoor carpet).
  • Roofing trim and accessories:  Elements that form the interface with other building elements; copings, gravel stops, counterflashings, curbs.
  • Other roof covering elements.

Roof Openings:  Skylights, ventilation openings, access openings, other elements that close roof openings.

Roof Appurtenances:  Elements attached to the roof, unless equipment or services.

  • See Section DCC31, Information Fixtures Criteria, for all signage.
  • See Section DCG1, Site Improvements Criteria, for all flagpoles
  • See Section DCD4, HVAC Criteria, for fans in roof openings.

Caution: This Section should not be used without Section DC0, Facility Design Criteria.

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DC C - Interiors

DC C - Interiors Criteria

This Section describes criteria that apply to all interior work except facility services. Start by completing the optional checklist and the Section will be prepopulated for editing.

This Section includes requirements that apply to overall interior design as well as to all elements included within the interiors. Interiors comprise interior construction and interior fixtures.

Interior Construction:  All elements necessary to subdivide and finish space enclosed within the shell, including applied interior surfaces of the exterior enclosure. Elements included are:

  • Partitions, visually open barriers such as screens and handrails.
  • Doors. (Additional requirements are specified in Section DCC1.)
  • Interior windows and other openings such as louvers and vents not connected to ductwork, access panels, floor hatches, expansion joint covers, and all components associated with miscellaneous interior openings, such as frames, sills, finished casings, and operating hardware.
  • Stairs and ramps, their railings, including exterior stairs and fire escapes attached to the building, the structure supporting stairs and the tread and riser construction itself, unless they are an integral part of the superstructure. It also includes interior stair railings.
  • Suspended ceilings and interior finishes. (Additional criteria are specified in Section DCC2.)

Interior Fixtures:  All elements attached to interior construction that add functionality to enclosed spaces, except for elements classified as equipment or services fixtures.  

Some, like toilet accessories, may not be mentioned in the project program at all. Others may be fully defined in the project program, making it unnecessary to include any description here. The main categories of interior fixtures are:

  • Information Fixtures:  Signage, visual display surfaces, telecommunications enclosures. (Additional criteria are specified in Section DCC31.)
  • Storage Fixtures:  Non-furniture items, such as cabinets, wardrobes, lockers, and shelving. (Additional criteria are specified in Section DCC32.)
  • Window Treatment:  Non-furnishings items, including blinds, shades, shutters, and curtain tracks. (Additional criteria are specified in Section DCC33.)
  • Fixed Seating:  Single and multiple seating that is attached to the building. (Additional criteria are specified in Section DCC34.)
  • Other Interior Fixtures:  Toilet, bath, and laundry accessories, including these items if used in other types of rooms, such as kitchens.

This Section does not include structural interior walls, which are part of superstructure. Caution:  This Section should not be used without Section DC0, Facility Design Criteria.

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DC C1 - Interior Doors Criteria

This Section describes all types of interior doors, door hardware. Start by completing the optional checklist and the Section will be prepopulated for editing.

This Section includes doors, door hardware, frames, and finishes. Lock function options are provided.

Door types included are the following:

  • Pedestrian doors: All "people-sized" doors.
  • Large doors: Overhead, etc.
  • Special use doors.
  • Interior gates.

Other interior door elements:  Elements forming or completing the opening, such as sills and thresholds. Start by completing the optional checklist and the Section will be prepopulated for editing.

This Section does not include provisions for:

  • Cased openings (see Section DCC2 - Interior Finishes Criteria).
  • Cabinetry doors (see Section DCC32 - Storage Fixtures Criteria).
  • Access doors and panels (see Section DCC - Interiors Criteria).
  • Elevator hoistway doors (see Section DCD11 - People-Moving Equipment Criteria).

Caution:  This Section should not be used without Section DC0, Facility Design Criteria, or DCC, Interiors Criteria.

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DC C2 - Interior Finishes Criteria

This Section describes applied finishes and suspended ceilings. Start by completing the optional checklist and the Section will be prepopulated for editing.

This Section includes all applied finishes on the interior of the building, including on the interior side of exterior wall elements. Any type of finish used for decoration, acoustics, or durability should be included.

The principal finish types are the following:

  • Wall finishes, including wall bases and trim, and corner guards and other protection.
  • Floor finishes:  Excludes access flooring (see Section DCB1); includes recessed mat frames.
  • Applied ceiling finishes.
  • Suspended ceilings and soffits, including exterior soffits that don't form a weather barrier.
  • Stair finishes.
  • Other finishes.

Caution:  This Section should not be used without Section DC0, Facility Design Criteria, or DCC, Interiors Criteria.

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DC C31 - Information Fixtures Criteria

This Section describes signage, visual display surfaces, and communications fixtures. Start by completing the optional checklist and the Section will be prepopulated for editing.

The project program may dictate the need for most of the elements specified. That means that the scope (what to provide where) must be explicitly defined either in the project program or in this Section.

Signage:  Signs, directories, and other identifying devices that are attached to the building, both interior and exterior.

Visual Display Surfaces:  Erasable, tackable, magnetic, and projection surfaces.

Communications Fixtures:  Fixed mountings and enclosures for telephones, computers, etc.

The Section does not include any type of temporary or portable signage not permanently attached to the building.

Caution:  This Section should not be used without Section DC0, Facility Design Criteria, or DCC, Interiors Criteria.

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DC C32 - Storage Fixtures Criteria

This Section describes cabinetry, wardrobe units, closet fixtures, lockers, fixed shelving, and mailboxes. Start by completing the optional checklist and the Section will be prepopulated for editing.

This Section includes several types of storage components that are attached to building interiors but are typically modular and (to some extent) relocatable.

Storage fixtures include but are not limited to the following elements:

  • Built-in cabinetry and casework, including countertops, but excluding movable components.
  • Wardrobe units and closet fixtures such as shelving and hanging rods.
  • Clothing, athletic, and storage lockers.
  • Anchored utility shelving, excluding furniture shelving and high-density storage systems.
  • Mailboxes and other postal specialties, except U.S. Post Office prescribed fixtures for post offices.
  • Other storage fixtures.

Storage fixtures and casework for commercial food service are specified in Section DCE11, Food Service Equipment Criteria.

Fire extinguisher cabinets are specified in Section DCE1, Equipment Criteria.

Furniture shelving units would be specified in Section DCE2, Furnishings Criteria.

High density movable storage systems would be specified in Section DCE1, Equipment Criteria.

Caution:  This Section should not be used without Section DC0, Facility Design Criteria, or DCC, Interiors Criteria.

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DC C33 - Window Treatment Criteria

This Section describes blinds, shades, shutters, curtain tracks, etc.; to control view/natural light. Start by completing the optional checklist and the Section will be prepopulated for editing.

This Section includes several types of control devices for view and natural light that are attached to building interiors. Window treatments apply to both interior and exterior windows. The Section does not include elements such as draperies, which are considered furnishings.
Window treatments in this Section include the following elements:

  • Blinds of various types.
  • Window shades of various types.
  • Interior shutters.
  • Curtain tracks, including both manual and motorized controls.
  • Other types of window treatment.

Curtains and draperies would be specified in Section DCE2, Furnishings Criteria.

Caution:  This Section should not be used without Section DC0, Facility Design Criteria, or DCC, Interiors Criteria.

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DC C34 - Fixed Seating Criteria

This Section audience, conference, and lounge seating; pews, benches, other types. Start by completing the optional checklist and the Section will be prepopulated for editing.

Audience, conference, and lounge seating; pews, benches, other types.

Five generic types of seating are defined in this Section for convenience in identifying different types on any project. For each type, it is possible to define more than one level of comfort - width, depth, resilience (padding), pitch (slope) of back and seat, and height of seat and back. The five types are as follows:

  1. Audience Seating:  Seats with backs, usually in closely spaced rows; may be any type from padded auditorium type to stadium seating; default seat pitch of 5-8 percent; may tilt (rocker action) but not swivel.
  2. Conference Seating:  Same as audience seating, with optional tablet arm or table and underseat book rack; default seat pitch of 2-3 percent; may tilt and/or swivel.
  3. Lounge Seating:  Fixed chair-style seating; any level of comfort; default seat pitch of 5-8 percent. Note:  Specify movable lounge seating in the Furnishings Section.
  4. Pews:  Benches with backs and optional ends, usually arranged in rows for audience purposes; may be specified with either flat seats or contoured seats with default seat pitch of 1-2 percent.
  5. Benches:  With or without backs or arms; may be specified with either flat seats or contoured seats with default seat pitch of zero.

Additional requirements for outdoor seating may be specified in Section DC G1, Site Improvements Criteria.

Caution:  This Section should not be used without Section DC0, Facility Design Criteria, or DCC, Interiors Criteria.

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DC D - Facility Services

DC D11-  People-Moving Equipment Criteria

This Section describes elevators, escalators, and other equipment primarily for moving people. Start by completing the optional checklist and the Section will be prepopulated for editing.

This Section covers electric (or traction) elevators and hydraulic elevators for passengers and service, and vertical and inclined wheelchair lifts and stairway chairlifts.

Elevator requirements include fixtures in shafts and pits, car and hoistway doors. Car and hoistway door finish requirements are referenced to Section 01 0233 - Interior Finish Criteria but can also be amplified in this Section.

Hoistways for elevators are either part of Superstructure or Interior Construction. Elevator pits are typically part of Substructure.
Freight elevators, sidewalk elevators, dumbwaiters, trash chutes, and permanent scaffolding and lifts for window washing are covered in Section DCD12, Material Handling and Maintenance Lift Criteria.

Dock levelers and lifts are included in Section DCE1, Equipment Criteria.

Caution:  This Section should not be used without Section DC0, Facility Design Criteria.

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DC D12 - Material Handling and Maintenance Conveying Equipment Criteria

This Section describes conveying equipment primarily used for maintenance access and material handling. Start by completing the optional checklist and the Section will be prepopulated for editing.

This Section includes electric (or traction) elevators and hydraulic elevators for freight, sidewalk freight elevators, dumbwaiters, window washing swing stages and davits, and similar devices.

Elevator requirements include fixtures in shafts and pits, car and hoistway doors.

Hoistways for elevators are either part of superstructure or interior construction. Elevator pits are typically part of substructure.

Loading dock lifts and levelers, and trash chutes, are included in Section DCE1 - Equipment Criteria.

Caution:  This Section should not be used without Section DC0, Facility Design Criteria.

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DC D2 - Fire Suppression Criteria

This Section describes sprinklers, standpipes, and other extinguishing systems. Start by completing the optional checklist and the Section will be prepopulated for editing.

NOTE:  If compliance with the applicable code is sufficient, this Section is not needed. Compliance with the code is specified in Section DC0 - Facility Design Criteria.

This Section includes sprinkler systems that use water to extinguish fires and other types of automatic extinguishing systems. The most common types are wet-pipe, dry-pipe, pre-action, and deluge fire sprinkler systems. Refer to NFPA 13 "Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems" for an explanation of each.

See Section DCD4, HVAC Criteria, for smoke control.

See Section DCE1, Equipment Criteria, for portable fire extinguishers and related equipment.

See Section DCG2, Site Services, for site elements of fire suppression.

Fire suppression for industrial processes would be specified in Section DCH, Process Criteria.

See Section DC0 for aspects of building elements that reduce the likelihood of fires or contribute to containment of fires.

Caution:  This Section should not be used without Section DC0, Facility Design Criteria.

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DC D3 - Plumbing Criteria

This Section describes domestic water, sanitary sewer, rainwater, fixtures, pool/fountain, and laboratory fixtures. Start by completing the optional checklist and the Section will be prepopulated for editing.

This Section covers the delivery of water (hot and cold domestic water) to points of utilization and the removal of water, rain water, and liquid waste.

Specific elements included are:

  • water supply, identification or provision of.
  • plumbing fixtures.
  • domestic water.
  • sanitary waste and vent.
  • rain water drainage.
  • swimming pool plumbing.
  • fountain plumbing.
  • supplementary drinking water.

Type and quantity of plumbing fixtures can be itemized in this Section or referenced to the code and/or the project program.

Laboratory water and waste, compressed air, and medical gas and vacuum would be specified in this Section, if required. Note:  no criteria for these systems are included.

See Section DCD4, HVAC Criteria, for natural gas and fuel oil piping and tanks for HVAC. Specify service for industrial processes in Section DCH, Process Criteria.

See Section DCG2, Site Services Criteria, for additional requirements for plumbing services located outside the building in the site area, including:

  • private sewer systems, including septic tanks and fields.
  • site storm water drainage.

Packaged waste treatment plants and other waste water treatment facilities would be specified in Section DCG2, Site Services.
Caution:  This Section should not be used without Section DC0, Facility Design Criteria.

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DC D4 - HVAC Criteria

This Section describes heating, ventilating, and air conditioning; energy supply; smoke control. Start by completing the optional checklist and the Section will be prepopulated for editing.

This Section includes requirements for all elements of an HVAC system, corresponding generally to Masterformat Division 23. HVAC is defined as artificial means of maintaining interior space comfort and air quality.

Energy Supply:  Energy sources associated with heating and cooling the building. Energy sources currently included are natural gas, liquefied petroleum, and No.2 diesel fuel oil. Other energy sources can be added.

Heat generation equipment. Elements specifically included are boilers and furnaces.

Refrigeration equipment for building cooling. Elements included are water chillers; cooling towers; and refrigerant units, such as condensing units, packaged terminal air conditioners, heat pumps, and evaporative coolers (swamp coolers).

Air distribution systems (supply, return, and exhaust) and ventilation associated with heating and cooling the building; smoke control (outline only).

Heating and cooling hydronic systems, and steam and condensate systems, and refrigerant systems associated with heating and cooling the building.

Controls and instrumentation to monitor and control the equipment associated with heating and cooling the building.

Dehumidifiers.

Energy recovery units.

Process HVAC (any HVAC that relates to processes within the building, rather than space comfort) should be specified in Section DCH, Process Criteria.

Building automation and other combined control systems should be specified in Section DCD5, Integrated Automation Criteria.

Caution:  This Section should not be used without Section DC0, Facility Design Criteria.

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DC D5 - Integrated Automation Criteria

This Section describes facility controls that combine two or more other control systems (outline only). Start by completing the optional checklist and the Section will be prepopulated for editing.

Building automation systems (BAS) usually combine HVAC controls with security and access control and sometimes elevator controls. This Section should be used to specify the degree to which the separate control systems specified in other Sections are to be integrated, for automatic (programmed) control and for remote operation.

Caution:  This Section should not be used without Section DC0, Facility Design Criteria, or the other Sections defining the primary systems to be automated.

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DC D6 - Electrical Criteria

This Section describes power, distribution, lighting, lightning protection, special grounding, cathodic protection. Start by completing the optional checklist and the Section will be prepopulated for editing.

This Section includes requirements that apply to all electrical power elements, corresponding roughly to Masterformat Division 26. Electrical power (as a service) is defined as all the power required to properly operate the electrically operated devices required by the project program and those required for operation of other services.

Power Supply and Distribution:

  • Commercial power (power furnished by the electric power utility company). Major power generation on site or high-voltage transmission would be included in Section DCG2, Site Services.
  • Emergency and standby power systems involving emergency and standby generators, uninterruptible power supplies, and batteries.
  • If the source is from a utility company, this Section will cover high- and medium-voltage transformers, which can be furnished either by the utility company or the Owner.
  • Inside the building, equipment that may be involved includes main switchboards, transformers, panelboards, and circuit breakers and other devices.
  • Electromagnetic-interference and radio-frequency interference filtering, surge arresters or suppressors, and power conditioners.
  • Branch circuits, including receptacles and fixtures.

Lighting: All types of artificial lighting. Artificial lighting includes the following:

  • Interior Lighting:  General lighting, accent lighting, and emergency lighting (including exit signs). Portable lamps, if acceptable for required lighting, would also be included.
  • Exterior Area Lighting:  Roadway, walkway, and parking lighting, both for general illumination purposes and for improved security.
  • Athletic Lighting:  Recreation and sports, both interior and exterior.

Some other types of lighting that could be added to this Section or specified in a separate Section are:

  • Darkroom lighting, if not included with darkroom equipment in Equipment.
  • Underwater lighting, at pools and fountains.
  • Theatrical and stage lighting, if not included with theater and stage equipment in Equipment.
  • Operating room lighting, if not included with medical equipment in Equipment.
  • Decorative structure and landscape lighting, intended primarily for enhancing the nighttime appearance of buildings, plantings, and landscape features.

Portable lighting elements, such as table and floor lamps, that are not required for achievement of the criteria of this Section should be specified in Section DCE2, Furnishings Criteria.

Special Grounding Systems:  Supplementary systems for safely grounding lightning strikes, accidental contact between metal structures and power transmission lines, and stray currents in metal elements that might adversely affect electronic equipment.

  • Lightning protection scope is defined in Section DC0, Facility Design Criteria, but the design of it is specified in this Section.
  • Grounding of raised access floors, to reduce or eliminate transient currents that might interfere with electronic equipment.

Cathodic Protection:  This Section covers supplementary cathodic protection of underground metal structures, pipelines, and tanks for the purpose of prevention of corrosion. Cathodic protection is not necessary if the design does not include metal underground that is not protected by concrete encasement. See Section DC0, Facility Design Criteria, for those basic corrosion resistance requirements.
Criteria for special lighting to ensure effectiveness of security surveillance should be covered in Section DCD8, Electronic Safety and Security Criteria.

See Section DCG2 for site elements of electrical systems.

Caution:  This Section should not be used without Section DC0, Facility Design Criteria.

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DC D7 - Communications Criteria

This Section describes general voice, data, sound reinforcement, television, and clock systems. Start by completing the optional checklist and the Section will be prepopulated for editing.

This Section covers all communications elements, corresponding roughly to Masterformat Division 27, including voice and data, sound reinforcement, and television, that are commonly found in buildings of many types. This Section provides an outline for defining the scope of these systems, which should be customized for the project, unless the project program contains such a definition.

  • Telephone, facsimile, and computer data transmission networks, within and between buildings.
  • Public address and music, paging, sound reinforcement, auditorium systems, etc. These functions can also be part of the telephone system and/or the security system, and some public address functions are required as part of the fire alarm system. No "overlap" exists between these systems, because these sound reinforcement functions are not described in those other systems. Note:  If it is necessary, rather than optional, that sound reinforcement be integrated into one or more of those other systems, include the statements to that effect.
  • Television reception and distribution, including broadcast, cable, and closed circuit, and television projection for audiovisual presentation.
  • Electromagnetic-interference and radio-frequency interference shielding and filtering; surge arresters or suppressors; power conditioners.

Some equipment and systems that could be added to this Section or included in a separate Section are:

  • Voice communication for operational purposes, such as industrial processes.
  • Nurse call, doctors' register, and other healthcare-specific systems.

Television and communications for security are included in Section DCD8, Electronic Safety and Security Criteria.

Television projection surfaces are included in Section DCC31, Information Fixtures Criteria.

End-user equipment such as computers, telephone sets, monitors, etc., are not specified in this Section, because such a great variety is available, the technology changes so quickly, and these items are commonly furnished by the Owner.

Caution:  This Section should not be used without Section DC0, Facility Design Criteria.

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DC D8 - Electronic Safety and Security Criteria

This Section describes fire alarm, access control, intrusion detection, and remote surveillance. Start by completing the optional checklist and the Section will be prepopulated for editing.

This Section covers equipment and networks for visual, sound, and data communication for all types of safety and security systems. An essential element of the definition of performance of security controls is the definition of secure zones in the building or project. See Section DC0, Facility Design Criteria, for those definitions, which should be customized to the project.

Fire Alarm:  Detection and alarm, notification of occupants and public fire fighting agencies.

Access Control:  Remote locking and unlocking, keyless entry, and vehicular parking control.

Intrusion Detection:  Door status monitoring and recording.

Remote Surveillance:  Cameras and monitors, recording, security guard tour stations.

Some equipment and systems that could be added to this Section or included in a separate Section include:

  • Radiation detection and alarm.
  • Fuel-gas and -oil leak detection and alarm.
  • Refrigerant leak detection and alarm.
  • Detention monitoring and control.

Caution:  This Section should not be used without Section DC0, Facility Design Criteria.

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DC  E - Equipment and Furnishings

DC E1 - Equipment Criteria

This Section describes general equipment found in many occupancies; residential equipment. Start by completing the optional checklist and the Section will be prepopulated for editing.

This section covers utilitarian equipment types that might occur in a building of any occupancy, other than equipment for specific services functions. Equipment is generally distinguished from fixtures by having a power or plumbing connection. There are two major groups in this section:  General equipment and residential equipment. Food service equipment is specified in Section DCE11. An outline for other equipment is in Section DCE19.

General Equipment:  Fire protection specialties (extinguishers, cabinets, etc.), loading dock equipment, solid waste handling and disposal equipment including chutes, anchorage equipment for working on roofs, and built-in vacuum cleaning.

Residential Equipment:  Equipment used in private residential occupancies; hotels, motels, convents, monasteries, and dormitories; and residential functions of other occupancies. Included are fireplaces and stoves, built-in or large freestanding kitchen appliances, exhaust hoods, laundry appliances, and other specialty items such as steam baths and saunas.

Because the actual configuration of the building will determine what equipment is required, the need for some of these types of equipment are defined by performance criteria. I.e., if the design requires them, those items of equipment would be required, whether the project program calls for them or not.

Other items such as disappearing stairs, built-in ironing boards, and laundry chutes can be added to this section.
See other sections for the following types of fixtures:

  • Kitchen cabinetry.
  • Signs and directories; fixed storage shelving, cabinets, and lockers; window treatments; visual display surfaces (chalkboards, tackboards, projection screens, etc.)
  • Postal fixtures.
  • Communications fixtures (booths, etc.).
  • Toilet, bath, and laundry accessories.
  • Fixed seating.
  • Parking control equipment (in Electronic Safety and Security Criteria).
  • Window washing swing staging and anchors for boatswain's chairs (in Material Handling and Maintenance Conveying Equipment Criteria).

This section should not be used without Section DC0, Facility Design Criteria.

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DC E11 - Food Service Equipment Criteria

This Section describes commercial/Institutional; refrigeration, storage, prep, serving, cleaning; exhaust hoods. Start by completing the optional checklist and the Section will be prepopulated for editing.

This section covers equipment and fixtures for commercial and institutional applications, but not movable items that do not require electrical power or plumbing (those would be furnishings).

Types of equipment included are the following:

  • Refrigeration Equipment (including pre-fabricated cold rooms).
  • Storage Equipment: For food, equipment, and utensils (including mobile equipment).
  • Food Preparation Equipment (including appliances).
  • Serving Equipment, such as hot and cold tables, tray lines.
  • Cleaning Equipment, such as dishwashers, disposers.
  • Exhaust Hoods and Fans: Fire suppression requirements are referenced to Section D41 - Fire Sprinkler and Extinguishing Systems.
  • Other Food Service Equipment.

Additional requirements for the interior finishes of food service rooms and spaces are included in Sections DCC and DCC2.

NOTE:  This equipment is what is generally referred to as "commercial" or "institutional" equipment, but the requirements can cover any types of food equipment if used in one of those environments; specifically, residential kitchen appliances and unit kitchens. Residential appliances for residential purposes are specified in Section DCE1, Equipment Criteria.

Caution:  This section should not be used without Section DC0, Facility Design Criteria, or Section DCE1, Equipment Criteria.

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DC E19 - Other Equipment Criteria

This Section describes criteria for other equipment (outline only). List from Masterformat provided. Start by completing the optional checklist and the Section will be prepopulated for editing.

Criteria for other equipment (outline only). List from Masterformat provided.

This section is an outline for specifying all other types of equipment. The scope and extent of such equipment needs to be defined in either the project program or this section. Included in the text is a long list of potential equipment items.

Industrial equipment should be specified in Section DCH, Process Criteria.

Caution:  This section should not be used without Section DC0, Facility Design Criteria, or Section DCE1, Equipment Criteria.

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DC E2 - Furnishings Criteria

This Section describes criteria for all types of loose furnishings (outline only). Start by completing the optional checklist and the Section will be prepopulated for editing.

Furnishings are defined as loose, rather than fixed, and non-powered and non-plumbed, mostly without any moving parts. The extent and type of furnishings need to be defined in the project program or in this section.

Furnishings can be grouped into:

General Furnishings:

  • Rugs and mats (including foot grilles, chair mats).
  • Curtains; e.g. draperies, cubicle curtains.
  • Furniture; e.g. chairs, tables, housekeeping carts.
  • Interior Plants: Plants, planters, artificial plants.
  • Portable Lamps.
  • Accessories; e.g. artwork, waste baskets, clocks.

Food Service Furnishings:  Tables, chairs, serving carts; tableware; cookware; and other food service furnishings.

Commercial Furnishings:  Items like office furniture, etc.

Institutional Furnishings:  Such as hospital beds, school desks, and library files.

Residential Furnishings.

See Section DCG1, Site Improvements Criteria, for site furnishings.

Caution:  This section should not be used without Section DC0, Facility Design Criteria.

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DC G - Site

DC G - Site Criteria

This Section describes all types of sitework related to building construction, including site services. Start by completing the optional checklist and the Section will be prepopulated for editing.

The principal groups of site elements include:

  • Site Preparation: Clearing, site demolition, and earthwork.
  • Clearing:  Removal of vegetation, trash, and existing items not required for the project. Extent of preservation or salvage of existing vegetation should be described, unless already covered in Facility Design Criteria.
  • Site demolition.
  • Earthwork:  All earthwork for changing levels, grading, excavating, filling, soil stabilization, and temporary and permanent erosion and sediment control structures made of soil or rock. Excavation and fill include embankments, borrow, rock removal.
  • Soil stabilization can be accomplished by using geotextiles, cement, or lime.
  • Permanent erosion and sediment control structures include riprap, retaining walls, gabions, slope paving, and similar structures.

Site Improvements:  Paving and surfacing, fixtures and equipment, site furnishings, and landscaping, including irrigation. (See Section DCG1 for additional criteria.) Indoor plants can also be included or, if movable (as in potted), specified as furnishings in Section DCE2.

Site Services:  The outdoor and underground elements required to complete the design of the services defined in other sections - principally utility structures and equipment items that are always located outdoors. (See Section DCG2 for additional criteria.)

Other Site Construction:  Miscellaneous elements, including service tunnels.

Projects that involve extensive civil engineering probably will require addition of specific requirements for non-building elements.
Hazardous waste remediation is not included.

NOTE:  This section would normally cover only site work that is incorporated into the final project. Except for temporary erosion and sedimentation controls, all temporary work, such as construction fences, space for field offices, temporary roads, etc., should be described in Section 015000, Temporary Facilities and Controls, or its related sections.

Caution:  This section should not be used without Section DC0, Facility Design Criteria.

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DC G1 - Site Improvements Criteria

This Section describes pavements, fences, site furnishings, landscaping, and irrigation. Start by completing the optional checklist and the Section will be prepopulated for editing.

This section includes all types of fixed improvements except services - mainly paving and surfacing, fixtures and equipment, and landscaping. Under landscaping, irrigation and major indoor plantings are also included.

Pavements and surfacing include roadways, parking lots, walkways, exterior stairs and ramps not connected to buildings, and exterior sports surfacing. Pavement types include both flexible and rigid materials, as well as unit pavers of all types. Granular surfaces such as gravel, shells, and crushed stone are also included. Also included are ancillary items such as curbs and gutters, pavement marking, guardrails, parking bumpers, and guards and handrails used in conjunction with exterior stairs, ramps, and elevated walkways. Grass playing surfaces would be covered as an aspect of landscaping.

Fixtures and equipment include all kinds of elements that are installed outdoors, primarily fixed or permanently mounted elements, but may include movable elements.

Major categories are as follows:

  • Fences and other barriers.
  • Athletic fixtures and equipment (nets, goals, etc.)
  • Miscellaneous minor structures (shelters, footbridges, fountain structure, etc.)
  • Site furnishings (seating, tables, waste receptacles). Fixed seating criteria may be referenced to Section DCC34.
  • Outdoor signs, other than building-mounted signs, and traffic-oriented signs.

Landscaping covers plants and turf throughout the site and indoors, plus elements that support or contribute to their maintenance, especially irrigation. The project program should indicate any functional needs that plants address, such as lawns for children's play or shaded outdoor sitting areas. Special landscape types, such as golf courses, may require addition of more specific requirements. Major interior plantings, such as those in conservatories, garden rooms, atria, etc., are included in this section because they are more similar to outdoor landscaping than they are to interior furnishings. Minor quantities of portable potted plants would probably be better specified as furnishings, whether indoor or outdoor.

Caution:  This section should not be used without Section DC0, Facility Design Criteria, or Section DCG, Site Criteria.

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DC G2 - Site Services Criteria

This Section describes site portions of building services, campus services. Start by completing the optional checklist and the Section will be prepopulated for editing.

This section covers requirements for site elements of services systems. Only those elements that occur only out-of-doors or in non-habitable site structures are included. To provide a complete description of the services, include the other sections that describe the basic function. Some services, particularly HVAC distribution, lighting, communications, and security controls are completely covered in the sections describing the building portion of the services.

It is likely that this section will be required only for projects involving multiple buildings in a campus setting served by centrally-produced services or involving major or extensive built elements performing services functions. For the typical hook-up of a single building to public utilities, see the applicable section describing the building portion of the service.

Specific criteria included are for:

  • water tanks and reservoirs.
  • private sewage disposal.
  • storm sewer.
  • electrical power supply and distribution.

Some major site services elements are not included but could be added:

  • Water and waste treatment facilities (other than the buildings that house them).
  • Large water and fuel storage tanks.
  • Electrical power transmission lines and towers.
  • Gasoline storage for motor vehicles.

Cathodic Protection of Underground Piping: See Section DC0, Facility Design Criteria, and DCD6, Electrical Criteria.

Caution:  This section should not be used without Section DC0, Facility Design Criteria, or Section DCG, Site Criteria.

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DC H - Process

DC H - Process Criteria

This Section describes criteria for process equipment and services (outline only). Start by completing the optional checklist and the Section will be prepopulated for editing.

"Process" is defined as whatever performs the specific functions related to the primary purpose for existence of the building. These would be all industrial processes, plus anything else that does not primarily serve the building or its occupants.

See Section DCE19, Other Equipment, for some items that could be either equipment or process.

Caution:  This section should not be used without Section DC0, Facility Design Criteria.


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