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Citing Reference Standards in Specifications

Construction specifications use reference documents extensively for two primary reasons:

It's hard to say which of these reasons is more compelling because the practice is so well established that most people, both readers and writers of specifications, accept the practice as normal.

When citing a reference standard in the specification it is important to know what the standard says.  For instance, there are two main types of reference standards:

There are also many hybrid types of standards:

There are also installation standards, which define such things as which product to install where, preparing of substrates, and installation tolerances.  Each installation standard is unique, as it applies to a specific category of products applied in a certain way. 

SpecLink-E cites standards in these ways:

Which Standards Apply?

Obviously, you can look in the relevant SpecLink or PerSpective section to see which standards apply to that work result or product category. But what if you need to prepare a new section? The following are recommended places to look for relevant standards, in order of efficiency: